While continuing to provide a comprehensive introductory guide to environmental law in Canada, this fifth edition of Environmental Law incorporates discussion of recent developments in environmental litigation and regulation alongside reference to key statutory developments from the past half decade. In addition, important updates and revisions highlight significant developments in several central areas, notably federal and provincial climate change action following the 2015 Paris Agreement and issues associated with Aboriginal consultation, the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, and traditional environmental knowledge. Essential developments relating to human rights and the environment at both the national and international levels have been included alongside discussion of changes in environmental valuation and compensation, liability for spills and remediation, and polluter-pays jurisprudence. Recent judicial and administrative decisions affecting environmental assessment and involving NAFTA prior to the 2018 round of Canada-US-Mexico negotiations are also covered. Chapters on toxic substances, protected areas, endangered species, and economic incentives for environmental protection also reflect current legal activity and policy proposals.